Clodinafop-Propargyl Resistance Genes in Lolium rigidum Guad. Populations Are Associated with Fitness Costs
Zangeneh, Hossein Sabet
Chamanabad, Hamid Reza Mohammaddust
Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo
Travlos, Ilias S.
Prado Amián, Rafael de
Alebrahim, Mohammad Taghi
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Amino acid substitutions that confer herbicide-resistance may cause fitness costs in mutant plants at unfavorable levels in contrast to wild-species. The fitness costs in three Lolium rigidum populations (AH3 (Ile-2041-Asn) and BO2 (Ile-1781-Leu) as resistant (R) to clodinafop-propargyl, an ACCase (acetyl-CoAcarboxylase) inhibitor, carrying the mutations 1781 and 2041, respectively, and HF as susceptible (S)) were studied during 2014 and 2016. The germination rates and percentages of the three L. rigidum populations, and competition between them and Triticum aestivum using substitution series experiments were assessed. The BO2 and AH3 populations showed resistance to clodinafop-propargyl due to mutations in their ACCase genes. The germination rate for L. rigidum decreased as the sowing depth increased, with the lowest germination rate being found at 8 cm. AH3 and HF populations presented higher seed germination under water and NaCl salinity stress, but no fitness cost variations were observed among these R populations under optimal growth conditions. Diverse germination responses to light conditions were observed between the S and R L. rigidum populations. The highest germination percentage was observed in the HF population at the two-week lighting + two-week darkness regime. The comparison of relative yield total and relative crowding coefficient showed that T. aestivum was more competitive than L. rigidum. However, among ACCase-resistant L. rigidum populations, AH3 population was the most competitive presenting no fitness costs. This R population was more competitive than the S (HF) one under competitive conditions. These results show that fitness costs in the R L. rigidum populations vary according to the specific mutation at the ACCase gene that confers resistance to clodinafop-propargyl. In conclusion, mutations occurring at the 2041 position in the ACCase gene caused fitness costs, but those occurring at the 1781 position did not generate fitness costs for L. rigidum. Therefore, non-chemical methods should be considered unfavorable for resistant populations of this species.