Endogenous CO2 overpressure effect on higher alcohols metabolism during sparkling wine production
González-Jiménez, María del Carmen
Mauricio, Juan C.
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Higher alcohols produced by yeast during the fermentation of sparkling wine must have the greatest impact on the smell and taste of wine. At present, the metabolic response to methanol and higher alcohols formation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under endogenous CO2 overpressure has not been fully elucidated. In this work, a proteomics and metabolomics approach using a OFFGEL fractionator and the LTQ Orbitrap for the protein identification, followed by a metabolomic study for the detection and quantification of both higher alcohols (GC-FID and SBSE-TD-GC-MS) and amino acids (HPLC), was carried out to investigate the proteomic and metabolomic changes of S. cerevisiae in relation to higher alcohols formation under a CO2 overpressure condition in a closed bottle. The control condition was without CO2 overpressure in an open bottle. Methanol and six higher alcohols were detected in both conditions, and we have been able to relate to a total of 22 proteins: 15 proteins in the CO2 overpressure condition and 22 proteins in the control condition. As for the precursors of higher alcohols, 18 amino acids were identified in both conditions. The metabolic and proteomic profiles obtained in both conditions were different, so CO2 overpressure could be affecting the metabolism of higher alcohols. Furthermore, it was not possible to establish direct correlations in the condition under CO2 overpressure; however, in the condition without pressure it was possible to establish relationships. The data presented here can be considered as a platform that serves as a basis for the S. cerevisiae metabolome–proteome with the aim of understanding the behavior of yeast under conditions of second fermentation in the production of sparkling wines.