Temporal evolution and associated factors of adherence to mammography screening among women in Spain: results from two national health surveys (2017–2020)
Portero de la Cruz, Silvia
Béjar, Luis M.
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Ensuring equity in cancer screening is recommended by the European Commission. Despite the fact that breast cancer screening is a free population-based program in Spain, there remains considerable variation in the adherence to screening rate among population groups. This study was designed to describe the adherence of breast cancer screening in women in Spain, to evaluate the evolution in the period from 2017 to 2020, and to determine the variables that influence choosing to undergo breast cancer screening. A nationwide cross-sectional study with 7220 females aged 50–69 years from the 2017 Spanish National Health Survey and the 2020 European Health Survey for Spain was performed. We investigated mammography uptake rates, with socio-demographic factors, lifestyle habits, and health-related characteristics as independent variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the associated factors of mammography adherence. Of the women, 78% had undergone mammography in the previous two years, and there was a significant decrease in the uptake rate for breast cancer screening from 2017 (81.23%) to 2020 (74.68%) (p < 0.001). Educational level, marital status, residential location, nationality, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and leisure-time physical activity were all associated factors of mammography uptake.