Determination of Bathing Water Quality Using Thermal Images Landsat 8 on theWest Coast of Tangier: Preliminary Results
Cherif, El Khalil
Mesas Carrascosa, Francisco Javier
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Bathing water quality has been monitored in the west coast of Tangier, Morocco due to increased urban and industrial discharge through the Boukhalef river, using in-situ bacteriological measurements which demand high economical and temporal costs. In this study, Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) images were used as an alternative to the classical method, for determining bathing water quality to help decision makers obtain up-to-date and cost-effective information for coastal environment protection. For this purpose, during spring and summer 2017, seven sampling points were examined in terms of bacteriological parameters: Total Coliforms (TC), Faecal Coliforms (FC), Intestinal Enterococci (IE) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Also, a spatial-temporal analysis was performed in this temporal window to detect temperature anomalies and their spatial distribution along the coastal bathing area. In addition, a relationship between in-situ bacteriological parameter measurements and temperature from satellite images was analyzed. The results of the water temperature distribution showed the highest values next to the Boukhalef river mouth, as well as the poorest water quality according to in-situ measurements, while lower values and better water quality status were observed moving away from the Boukhalef river mouth. The relationship between water temperature and bacterial concentration showed a high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.85). Consequently, the model development approaches used may be useful in estimating bacterial concentration in coastal bathing areas and can serve to create a monitoring system to support decision makers in the protection actions of the coast.