Recent Advances in Extraction and Stirring Integrated Techniques
MateriaExtraction/stirring integrated techniques
Stir bar sorptive extraction
Stir membrane extraction
Stir cake sorptive extraction
Rotating disk sorptive extraction
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The extraction yield of a microextraction technique depends on thermodynamic and kinetics factors. Both of these factors have been the focus of intensive research in the last few years. The extraction yield can be increased by synthesizing and using novel materials with favorable distribution constants (one of the thermodynamic factors) for target analytes. The extraction yield can also be increased by improving kinetic factors, for example, by developing new extraction modes. Microextraction techniques are usually non-exhaustive processes that work under the kinetic range. In such conditions, the improvement of the extraction kinetics necessarily improves the performance. Since the extraction yield and efficiency is related to how fast the analytes diffuse in samples, it is crucial to stir the sample during extraction. The stirring can be done with an external element or can be integrated with the extraction element in the same device. This article reviews the main recent advances in the so-called extraction/stirring integrated techniques with emphasis on their potential and promising approaches rather than in their applications.
Versión del Editorhttp://dx.doi.org/10.3390/separations4010006
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