Alternative Winemaking Techniques to Improve the Content of Phenolic and Aromatic Compounds in Wines
Cotea, Valeriu V.
Peinado Amores, Rafael
López de Lerma Extremera, M. Nieves
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In this study, a complete physical–chemical analysis was performed for Fetească neagră wine, aged with oak staves. Red wine samples were taken from grape varieties grown in Northeast Romania and produced during 2013 vintage. At the end of the fermentation process, four oak mini staves (1 cm width × 10 cm length × 1 cm thickness) from heavy toasted French oak were added to 5 L of red wine. Samples were aged using two time periods, respectively at 1.5 and 3 months, in a room at 14–16 °C. Results showed that the initial content of total phenolic decreased during ageing, from 931.1 mg catechin/L at 1.5 months to 775.4 mg catechin/L at 3 months. In contrast, the initial content of total antioxidant activity increased after the same period of ageing to 13.3 mM Trolox as compared to the aged wines for 1.5 months, at 12.8 mM Trolox. The corregram representing the relationship between the total phenols, total antioxidant activity (TAA) and their fractions and CieLab parameters was performed. Thirty-seven minor volatile compounds were quantified by stir bars sorptive extraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). An increase in odor activity value (OAV) with ageing time was observed, especially for fruity, fatty and woody series. The oak staves used in ageing processes can contribute positively to the aromatic profile of wines and could be considered a good choice for producing short-aged wines.