High Input of Nitrogen Fertilization and Short Irrigation Frequencies Forcefully Promote the Development of Verticillium Wilt of Olive
Pérez Rodríguez, Mario
López Escudero, Francisco Javier
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It is known that high N doses, N/K imbalances, and frequent irrigation favor Verticillium wilt. The influence of fertilization and its interaction with the frequency of irrigation on the development of Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) has been evaluated. A split-split-plot design in microplots with two naturally infested soils of different texture was established for studying three fertilization treatments (NO3Ca, NPK and without fertilization), plus two irrigation frequencies (daily and deficit). The treatments were applied by means of fertigation, evaluating the susceptible cultivar Picual. Final disease incidence in plants subjected to NO3Ca daily treatment was 100% regardless of soil texture. However, final mortality in these plants was 37% and 85.2% in clay and sandy loam soils, respectively. In addition, the area under the disease progress curve values were significantly higher (49.1%) in plants subjected to NO3Ca fertilization compared to those not fertilized or fertilized with N-P-K when plants were grown in clay soil. This value in the sandy loam soil was significantly higher in the NO3Ca daily irrigation treatment (94.3%), followed by the N-P-K-daily treatment (61.1%) which also was significantly higher than the unfertilized daily, N-deficit and NPK-deficit treatments (37.8, 42.6 and 44.9%, respectively). The plants submitted to unfertilized-deficit treatment reached the lowest value (9.6%). In this work it can be concluded that the application of fertilizer or the application of fertilizer with daily irrigation in naturally infested soils increases the development of VWO in Picual.