Correlation between Biomarkers of Pain in Saliva and PAINAD Scale in Elderly People with Cognitive Impairment and Inability to Communicate
Rich Ruiz, Manuel
Moreno-Casbas, María Teresa
Ramírez Expósito, M.J.
Martínez Martos, J.M.
Carrera González, M.P.
Pain assessment in advanced dementia (PAINAD)
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The pain assessment in advanced dementia (PAINAD) appears to be a clinically useful tool. However, the salivary determination of tumor necrosis factor receptor type II (sTNF-RII) and secretory IgA (sIgA) as pain biomarkers is still incipient. The aim was to correlate the PAINAD score with sTNF-RII and sIgA biomarker levels in the saliva of patients with advanced dementia. In this regard, a cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of 75 elderly patients with a clinical diagnosis of dementia and a global deterioration scale (GDS) score of 5 to 7. The PAINAD scale was determined by a previously trained professional and the collection of salivary samples was performed using the passive secretion method. Human sTNF-RII and sIgA using ELISA kits. The results showed a correlation between the PAINAD scale (numeric, binary, and recoded) and sTNF-RII and sIgA (p < 0.001). No association between the sociodemographic and clinical variables and the PAINAD scale was found (p > 0.05). Between 97.3% and 96.2% of patients with pain on the PAINAD scale also showed pain based on the sTNF-RII levels; in all of them, sIgA levels did not fit the logistic models. Therefore, the correlation highlights the usefulness of this scale and confirms the usefulness of sTNF-RII and sIgA as biomarkers of pain.