Evaluation of the combined glucose-insulin and intravenous glucose tolerance tests for insulin dysregulation diagnosis in donkeys
Mendoza García, Francisco Javier
Buchanan, Ben R.
Toribio, Ramiro E.
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Background. Insulin dysregulation (ID) and donkey metabolic syndrome (DMS) are common in this species. Contrary to horses, diagnostic guidelines compiling insulin cut-offs values and dynamic testing interpretations have not been reported for this species. Objectives. To evaluate resting serum insulin concentrations, the combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) and the glucose intravenous tolerance test (IVGTT) for the diagnosis of DMS with ID suspicion. Study design. Diagnostic test comparison.Methods. Six of 80 mix-breed adult donkeys fulfilled the inclusion criteria for DMS based on history or clinical evidence of recurrent laminitis, body condition >6 and neck score >2 or baseline insulin and leptin concentrations >20 µIU/mL and >12 ng/mL respectively. CGIT and IVGTT were performed in all donkeys within a week and interpreted following guidelines reported for equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Insulin and glucose curves were analysed, proxies calculated and correlations and multivariate analysis assessed. Results. Following EMS guidelines, CGIT classified 2 (using glucose-positive phase duration) or 3 (using insulin concentration) and IVGTT classified 5 donkeys as ID. ID donkeys showed a lower glucose/insulin ratio, QUICKI and RISQI, and a higher insulin/glucose ratio, MIRG and HOMA-B%. Main limitations. Comparison of these tests with additional dynamic testing including a larger number of ID donkeys is necessary. Conclusions. This is the first study evaluating dynamic tests to assess ID/DMS in DMS-suspected donkeys. IVGTT detected more ID donkeys than CGIT. EMS recommendations could also be used for DMS diagnosis, although a baseline insulin cut-off value is needed.