Advanced Biofuels from ABE (Acetone/Butanol/Ethanol) and Vegetable Oils (Castor or Sunflower Oil) for Using in Triple Blends with Diesel: Evaluation on a Diesel Engine
López Tenllado, Francisco Javier
Bautista, Felipa M.
Romero, Antonio A.
Straight vegetable oil
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From a technical and economic point of view, our aim is to provide viable solutions for the replacement of fossil fuels which are currently used in internal combustion diesel engines. In this research, two new biofuels composed of second-generation vegetable oils (SVO),used oil sunflower (SO) or castor oil (CO), and the ABE blend (acetone/butanol/ethanol) were evaluated. ABE is an intermediate product from the fermentation of carbohydrates to obtain bio-butanol. Besides, the ABE blend exhibits suitable properties as biofuel, such asvery low kinematic viscosity, reasonable energy density, low autoignition temperature, and broad flammability limits. Diesel/ABE/SVO triple blends were prepared, characterized and then, tested on a diesel engine, evaluating power output, consumption, and exhaust emissions. The power output was slightly reduced due to the low heating values of ABE blend. Also, engine consumed more fuel with the triple blends than with diesel under low engine loads whereas, at medium and high loads, the fuel consumption was very similar to that of diesel. Regarding exhaust gas emissions, soot wasnotably reduced, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO2) emissions were lower or comparable to that of diesel, while the CO emissions increased. The use of these biofuels allows the replacement of high percentagesof diesel without compromising engine power and achievinga significant reduction in pollution emissions. Furthermore, a notable improvement in cold flow properties of the fuel blends is obtained, in comparison with diesel.