Solvent Retention Capacity and Gluten Protein Composition of Durum Wheat Flour as Influenced by Drought and Heat Stress
Biljon, Angeline van
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Drought and temperature stress can cause considerable gluten protein accumulation changes during grain-filling, resulting in variations in wheat quality. The contribution of functional polymeric components of flour to its overall functionality and quality can be measured using solvent retention capacity (SRC). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of moderate and severe drought and heat stress on SRC and swelling index of glutenin (SIG) in six durum wheat cultivars with the same glutenin subunit composition and its relation with gluten protein fractions from size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography. Distilled water, sodium carbonate and sucrose SRC reacted similarly to stress conditions, with moderate heat causing the lowest values. Lactic acid SRC and SIG reacted similarly, where severe heat stress highly significantly increased the values. SIG was significantly correlated with sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation (SDSS) and flour protein content (FPC) under all conditions. Lactic acid SRC was highly correlated with FPC under optimal and moderate heat stress and with SDSS under moderate drought and severe heat. SIG was negatively correlated with low molecular weight glutenins under optimal and drought conditions, and combined for all treatments. The relationship between SRC and gluten proteins was inconsistent under different stress conditions.